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考研語法入門:介詞by/of用法

2018-08-28 09:14瀏覽:

►by用法

  By是個很常見的介詞,今天我們來介紹它的幾個常見用法:

  1、被;由

  The feast was served by his mother and sisters. 這頓美餐是他母親和他的姐妹們準備的。

  The child was saved by a PLA man. 這孩子是由一位解放軍戰士救活的。

  He was praised by the teacher. 他受到了老師的表揚。

  2、表明作者,“(圖書、音樂、繪畫等)由……創作,出自”

  a painting by Van Gogh... 一幅凡?高的畫

  This book is written by Jack. 這本書是杰克寫的。

  a collection of piano pieces by Mozart (莫扎特鋼琴曲集)

  3、表示方式、方法、手段等,“通過;用;憑”

  We'll be travelling by car. 我們將開車旅行。

  They can read by touch. 他們可以通過手摸來閱讀。

  I send a letter by post. 我通過郵局寄信。

  Make the sauce by boiling the cream and stock together in a pan. 把奶油和高湯一起放在平底鍋里熬煮來制作調味料。

  4、在…旁邊;接近

  Judith was sitting in a rocking-chair by the window. 朱迪絲正坐在窗戶邊的一張搖椅里。

  He gave me a story book when nobody was by. 當附近無人的時候他把小說給了我。

  5、經過;經由

  He kept walking and passed by me on his side of the street. 他一直在街對面走著,并與街這邊的我交錯而過。

  He hurried by without a word. 他匆匆地走過去沒有說一句話。

  Time has gone by. 時間已過去了。

  6、在…時候;到…之前;不遲于

  By eight o'clock he had arrived at my hotel. 到8點時,他已經到達我住的賓館了。

  We all knew by then that the affair was practically over. 到那時,我們都知道事情實際上已經結束了。

  We should finish our work by tonight. 今晚之前我們要結束工作。

  7、(乘或除)以

  230cm divided by 22cm is 10.45cm. 230厘米除以22厘米等于10.45厘米。

  8、表示幅度

  Violent crime has increased by 10 percent since last year. 暴力犯罪自去年以來增加了10%。

  The shot missed her by miles. 那一槍沒打中她,差了十萬八千里。

  9、以…計;按…計

  Parcels arrived by the dozen from America. 包裹成打地從美國運來。

  billing is by the minute. 以分鐘計賬。

  ►of用法

  1、用于連接兩個名詞,其中前者表示后者的特定方面

  Nine of the children came to the show. 其中的九個孩子觀看了演出。

  He ate a piece of cake. 他吃了片蛋糕。

  We had almost reached the end of the street. 我們幾乎到了街的盡頭。

  2、用于連接兩個名字或名詞與現在分詞,其中后者對前者進行限定或補充

  She let out a little cry of pain. 她疼得輕呼了一聲。

  This has been a good chance of meeting up with everyone again. 這是一個和大家再次見面的好機會。

  3、用于有動詞意味的名詞后指名動作對象或主體

  The death of their father shocked us. 他們父親的死震驚了我們。

  the Marriage of Figaro. 《費加羅的婚禮》

  4、用于指示數量或組群的詞和短語后表示計量的對象

  My mother bought a dozen of eggs. 我媽媽買了十二個雞蛋。

  He has a collection of short stories. 他有一部短篇小說集。

  5、指示所屬機構或地方

  Jack is the manager of this company. 杰克是這家公司的經理。

  Hang Zhou is the capital of Zhe Jiang province. 杭州是浙江省的省會。

  6、指示容器

  A cup of coffee, please. 請給我一杯咖啡。

  Marta drank a glass of juice. 瑪爾塔喝了一杯果汁。

  7、(表示材料或成分)由…制作而成

  a mixture of apples and bananas. 蘋果和香蕉的混合物。

  8、接形容詞后表看法

  This has been so nice, so terribly kind of you. 您這么做真是太好心,太令我們感激不盡了。

  That's certainly very generous of you Ton. 托尼,你真是慷慨大方。

  9、指示某人或某事的特點

  She didn't know the worth of her books. 她不知道她的書的價值所在。

  She is a woman of enviable beauty. 她的美貌令人艷羨。

  10、表示時間

  A quarter of six 6點差一刻

  Of有個很大的特點便是從屬關系,以此發散思維,希望同學們好好掌握這個介詞的用法